Throwing techniques (nage waza) are used to bring your opponent from their feet to their back. In competition a throw with speed, force, and control which lands your opponent largely on their back, an action which will likely finish a real fight, wins the match.
Throws have three phases or parts kuzushi, Tsukuri, and kake
Kuzushi - off balancing your opponent in preparation to throwing them
Tsukuri - entering or obtaining proper body position for the throw
Kake - execution of the throw
Kuzushi (off balancing) is done in one of 8 basic directions depending on which direction you will be throwing your opponent. The happo no kuzushi (8 directions of off balancing) is used to teach the basics of off balancing.
Happo no Kuzushi - eight directions of off balancing
Throwing techniques are grouped into 5 categories: te waza (hand techniques), koshi waza (hip techniques), ashi waza (leg techniques), ma sutemi waza (true sacrifice techniques) and yoko sutemi waza (side sacrifice techniques). The techniques are categorized by the part of the body most utilized in the technique (hand, hip, or leg) or by the act of throwing yourself to your back or side in the process of throwing your opponent.
Te waza - hand techniques
Koshi waza - hip techniques
Ashi waza - leg techniques
Ma sutemi waza - true sacrifice techniques
Yoko sutemi waza - side sacrifice techniques
In competition and real situations it is common to have the first attack fail. So, as you learn throwing techniques, you will learn renzoku waza (continuation techniques) and renraku waza (combination techniques)
Renzoku waza - continuation techniques
Renraku waza - combination techniques
In competition and real situations a throw may not be enough to finish the situation. So it is also important to learn transitions from throwing into ground work where you maintain control.
Transitions tori tori - transitions from throwing to ground work where the thrower remains in control
In situations where you have been thrown, it is important to learn how to take control once you have been thrown to the ground.
Transitions uke tori - transitions from throwing to ground work where the person thrown takes control